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Recurrent Implantation Failure

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections passed from one person to another via sexual activity. It is an infectious disease that spreads through contact with blood or fluids in an open wound. It may also get transmitted from a mother to baby during delivery via breast milk. STDs may affect males and females of all ages and backgrounds. Sometimes STDs can also spread through intimate physical contact.
In many STDs, the affected individual shows no signs at all. Although it is asymptomatic (free of symptoms), there is still a risk of fertility damage due to infection. In addition, STDs increase the health risk of the affected person and its sexual partner.

What are the causes of Recurrent Implantation Failure (RIF)?




Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) 

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a condition that happens when there is too much of certain bacteria in the vagina. This changes the normal balance of bacteria in the vagina. Usually, the vagina contains many "good" bacteria and a few "bad" bacteria. The good ones regulate the growth of the bad bacteria. BV usually fades away on its own in some days. However, it may also bring about severe problems.

No signs are seen in half of the females. However, some may experience:

A white, grey or yellow color discharge with a fishy odor, particularly after sexual contact.


Chlamydia is the most common STD caused by a bacterium named Chlamydia trachomatis. This infection spreads easily, often causes no signs and may get transferred to the sexual partners.

About 70 to 80% of females and 50% of males present no signs. Females with signs might have:

  • pain while urinating
  • lower abdominal pain
  • a change in vaginal discharge
  • heavier menses than normal
  • bleeding between periods
  • pain and/or bleeding during sexual intercourse
  • bleeding after intercourse, If left untreated, it may bring about Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), resulting in infertility and pregnancy problems


Genital Herpes

Herpes is a vastly contagious viral condition due to the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV).

Few individuals might have no signs; others develop signs within a few days after the intercourse. Signs may include:

Tiny red, aching blisters or open sore. Generally, the infection occurs in the skin and mucous membrane of the genitals and rectum but may also arise in the mouth, largely in the lips.

The sores and blisters might be followed by flu-like signs such as fever and inflamed lymph nodes.


This bacterial infection is caused by Neisseria gonorrhea. This bacterium grows rapidly in moist, warm regions of the body like the urethra, cervix, rectum, or mouth.

Males with signs may have:

  • Abnormal discharge from the penis
  • Anal irritation, uneasiness, bleeding, or discharge
  • Painful or repeated urination or urethritis
  • Pink-eye (conjunctivitis) (rare)
  • A sore throat (rare)

Females with signs may have:

  • Painful or frequent urination
  • Fever and fatigue
  • Anal irritation, uneasiness, bleeding, or discharge
  • Genital itch
  • Abnormal menses
  • Irregular vaginal discharge
  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Painful intercourse
  • Inflamed and painful glands at the opening of the vagina (Bartholin glands)
  • A sore throat (rare)
  • Pink-eye (conjunctivitis) (rare)

 If left untreated, it may bring about Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), resulting in infertility and pregnancy problems.

Pubic lice

Pubic lice are small parasites (2mm long) that reside in body hair like pubic hair. They are yellow-grey and have a crab-like look.


Symptoms may include:

  • irritation in the affected areas
  • brown eggs on pubic or other body hair
  • Sky-blue color spots (which vanish within a few days) or tiny blood specks on the skin

Hepatitis B

It is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Hepatitis-B has two possible phases: 1) acute and 2) chronic.

Infection may transfer via infected blood and other fluids like semen, vaginal secretions and open sore.

Symptoms may include:

  • Low-grade fever
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Yellowish skin and eyes
  • Dark urine



The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) destroys white blood cells that fight infections and thus affect the immune system. HIV infection leads to AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). The virus spreads via unprotected intercourse with an infected individual. Also, it can spread by sharing medicine needles or via contact with the blood of an infected individual.

Symptoms may include:

  • Expanded lymph nodes
  • Fatigue
  • Prolonged fevers
  • Night sweats
  • Extended cough
  • Headaches

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)    

HPV usually vanishes on its own and does not bring about any health conditions. But when HPV fails to disappear, few types can bring about health problems like cancers and genital warts.

Women with signs may have:

  • Tiny and painless bumps (warts) in the anal or genital areas
  • HPV may also bring about cervical and other cancers such as cancer of the vulva, vagina, penis, or anus


It is a bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It gets transferred from individual to individual by direct contact with a syphilitic sore, called a chancre.

Chancres arise mostly on the external genitals, anus, vagina, or rectum. Syphilis gets transmitted during vaginal, anal, or oral sex.


Symptoms can be:

  • Headaches and muscle aches
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Sore throat
  • Non-prickly skin rash on the hands and feet


It is caused by infection with a protozoan parasite named Trichomonas vaginalis.

Symptoms may include:

  • Pain during intercourse
  • Yellow-green or greyish discharge
  • Vaginal odor
  • Uneasiness during urination
  • Irritation in the genital region

How to fix recurrent implantation failure?

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can spread into a woman's uterus and fallopian tubes and cause pelvic inflammatory disease. Therefore, STIs can lead to infertility and ectopic pregnancy, a significant cause of fetal and maternal death. STDs can be passed from mother to child. The connection between STDs and male fertility is still unclear.

Does COH increase the chances of conception?

COH is considered to be an added help for one who is trying to conceive via IUI, IVF, etc. It has been observed that if COH is followed by an IUI procedure, the chances of conception increase. With the combination of both, most couples are able to conceive successfully.

Even though the chances of pregnancy decrease with age, women with advanced maternal age have successfully conceived with the help of COH coupled with IUI or an IVF cycle.

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