Sperm Abnormalities Types

Abnormalities in sperm can be of different types. Different issues with sperm can influence fertility in men. These can extend from issues in sperm count, motility, morphology, etc.

A few of the most common sperm abnormalities types that can influence fertility are as follows:

Poor Sperm Motility:

Sperm motility refers to the capability of sperm to swim and move towards the egg. Poor or unusual sperm motility can make it difficult for sperm to reach and fertilise the egg.

Low Sperm Count:

It is a condition in which a male has fewer than a million sperm per millilitre of semen. This will reduce the chances of successful treatment.

DNA Damage:

DNA damage in sperm can result from a variety of factors, including age ,smoking and certain medical conditions. It decreases the chances of a healthy pregnancy and increases the chance of congenital inabilities in an offspring.

Irregular Sperm Morphology:

Sperm morphology describes the shape and structure of sperm. Abnormal sperm morphology can lead to infertility and risk of premature delivery.

Sperm Agglutination:

Sperm agglutination is a condition in which sperm adhere together, forming clumps that can decrease their motility and capacity to fertilise the egg.

Morphological Abnormalities in Sperm

Morphological anomalies are a few of the foremost common types of sperm abnormalities that can influence the capacity to fertilise an egg.

A quality sperm has the following characteristics regularly:

  • A prominent head, a mid-piece, and a long, whip-like tail.
  • An oval-shaped head that’s symmetrical, smooth, and free of any deformities or abnormalities
  • A straight, smooth, and undamaged tail
  • Approximately 5 to 6 micrometres in length and 2.5 to 3.5 micrometres in width; however, it can change marginally

A variation from the norm in sperm morphology, for the most part, includes an abnormal head shape, a bowed or coiled tail, or a lost mid-piece. Some of the common abnormalities in sperm morphology include:

Head defects:

Common anomalies within the sperm head include macrocephaly (huge head), microcephaly (little head), pinhead, headless sperm, globozoospermia (round-headed sperm), different heads in one sperm, etc.

Midpiece defects:

The neck of the sperm can have abnormalities such as asymmetrical insertion into the head, a neck that is too thick or too thin, a bent neck, or a sporadically moulded neck.

Tail defects:

Any defect within the structure of the tail can cause the sperm to be incapable of swimming effectively toward the egg. Common abnormalities include a coiled tail, stump tail, different tails, and tails of irregular thickness, etc.

What Causes Abnormal Sperm?

Sperm variations from the norm can be due to an assortment of factors, including:

  • Certain medical conditions and medicines (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation treatment, etc.)
  • Hereditary reasons
  • Hormonal imbalance
  • Lifestyle issues
  • Injury to the gonads
  • Undescended testicles
  • Varicoceles

What Are the Sperm Abnormality Symptoms?

Some of the common symptoms that indicate sperm abnormality include the following:

  • Sexual problems, for illustration, trouble with ejaculation or little volumes of semen ejaculated, decreased sexual desire, or trouble keeping up an erection (erectile dysfunction)
  • Pain, swelling, or a lump around the gonads
  • Unusual breast development (gynecomastia)
  • Diminished facial or body hair or other signs of a chromosomal or hormonal abnormality
  • A lower-than-normal sperm count (less than fifteen million sperm per millilitre of semen or a total sperm count of less than thirty-nine million per ejaculate)

Sperm Abnormality Treatment

Men with abnormalities in sperm can still become parents in most cases with medical treatment. Some common treatments for sperm anomalies include:

  • Medications to treat hormonal imbalances and infections
  • Surgery in case of issues like varicoceles
  • Use of assisted reproductive techniques
  • Lifestyle changes to improve sperm quality

It’s imperative to talk about treatment options with a fertility specialist to decide the best approach. They’ll also explain “What causes abnormal sperm?” in your case and whether it’s treatable.


In conclusion, issues with sperm can make it difficult for a man to have a child. These issues incorporate things like not having adequate sperm, sperm with motility issues, or abnormal morphology. However, there’s a range of treatment options available, including medications, surgery, assisted reproductive technologies, and lifestyle changes.  This means that many men facing infertility can still achieve their dream of fatherhood.