What Is Male Infertility?

Male infertility is a fertility problem in males that can be the reason for a female partner not achieving pregnancy. Male fertility checks include sperm and semen analysis. It means examining the amount and quality of semen and sperm. This test helps doctors to check sperm count, movement, and shape to gauge capability. If the results show abnormalities indicating low sperm count or weak sperm movement, it could imply reduced infertility. Doctors will tell you the causes and treatment options.

What Are the Causes of Male Infertility?

Several medical, health-related, and environmental factors can contribute to male infertility. These include:

Medical Issues

Medical issues include:

  • A swelling in veins, which is known as varicocele.
  • Infections that can cause scars, block sperm production, and degrade sperm health.
  • Retrograde ejaculation issues due to diseases like diabetes, spinal injuries, etc.
  • Antibodies that target sperm cells and eliminate them mistakenly.
  • If you have cancer, undescended testicles, or hormonal imbalances.
  • If you have chromosomal defects or have problems maintaining an erection while having sexual intercourse

Environmental Issues

Environmental causes include:

  • Exposure to heavy chemicals, lead, heavy metals, or high doses of radiation
  • Elevated temperature which may impair your sperm reproduction.
  • Wearing tight clothes while working on a laptop in a sitting position can increase the temperature in your scrotum, affecting sperm.

Other Health Issues

Health-related issues include:

  • Drug abuse can shrink testicles and slow down sperm reproduction.
  • Drinking alcohol can lower your testosterone levels and decrease sperm reproduction.
  • Smoking and tobacco consumption can also be the cause of infertility because it can decrease your sperm count.

If you are overweight, it can impact your sperm and reduce fertility.

What Tests Are Used for Male Fertility Check?

The most common tests used to identify male infertility are described below.

Sperm and Semen Analysis

It is the primary fertility test for men performed by doctors to check your sperm count, shape, movement, and other things. If you have high sperm, there are chances that you are fertile, but if you have low sperm counts, they will do a semen analysis to check if you are infertile. They will also suggest some other tests to identify infertility.

Physical Test

Doctors will perform this test to find varicoceles, which are abnormal formations of veins above the testicle.  You can make them normal after getting surgery.

Genetic Test

This test can help the doctor to identify some specific problems with fertility and problems in your sperm.

Treatment Options After Male Infertility Test

Male infertility can be treated by making some changes to your lifestyle, such as eating healthy food like fruits and vegetables, maintaining weight, doing some normal exercises, taking less stress, and giving up bad habits.

Hormone treatment can improve the quality of sperm, and a doctor can decide if hormone therapy is necessary.

Doctors will suggest some surgeries that can be used to treat this condition. They include vasectomy reversal, vasoepididymostomy, sperm harvesting, and varicocelectomy. They can suggest ART treatment, Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), and In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF), which can help women to get pregnant. In each case, it is very important to get medical advice from a qualified professional.


Male infertility tests can help you find out things like sperm count, shape, and movement. To figure out what to do next, you must get in with your fertility specialist. They will guide you at every stage of your treatment and give you the correct advice on how to become a parent.