What Is Miscarriage?

Miscarriages often result from an underdeveloped foetus and are beyond one’s control. It often happens in the very first trimester. Multifarious factors add up to the risk of miscarriage. Unfortunately, medical science has yet to pinpoint the root cause of each miscarriage.

Types of Miscarriage

A miscarriage can be of the following types depending upon the symptoms and the stage of gestation:

  • Complete Miscarriage: All the foetal tissue has gets expelled from the body.
  • Incomplete Miscarriage: Some part of the foetus remains inside the body.
  • Inevitable Miscarriage: A miscarriage is inevitable if bleeding, cramps and cervical dilation are there.
  • Missed Miscarriage: It occurs when the products of conception remain inside the body after a failed pregnancy.

What Are the Common Miscarriage Causes?

Until the first trimester of gestation, chromosomal abnormalities cause most miscarriages. If the foetus has abnormal chromosome numbers, it will cease developing within the first trimester. A boatload of problems are implicated in chromosomes, and the cause behind the question of ‘why’ remains unanswerable. Another common cause of miscarriage is the inability of the developing foetus to attach to the uterine lining adequately due to issues in the embryo or in the womb lining. Acute illness, medical issues affecting the pregnant woman, and several other factors can cause miscarriage.

The following factors play a significant role in the occurrence of miscarriage:/p

  • Advanced age of intending mother
  • Infection of the womb
  • Underlying diseases in the mother’s body, like diabetes, renal diseases, Hypertension
  • Hormonal problems
  • Clotting disorders
  • Problems with the immune system responses
  • Uterine abnormalities like fibroids, polyps, adhesions
  • Smoking, alcohol or drug abuse
  • Exposure to environmental toxicity
  • Certain medications
  • Severe malnutrition

Miscarriages are often looked upon as something one did or didn’t do. But this isn’t true. It is important not to blame anything or anyone for a miscarriage. Age, weight, health conditions and previous history of miscarriage add to the risk of future miscarriages.

What Are the Key Symptoms of Miscarriage?

Based upon which stage of pregnancy, the symptoms of miscarriage may vary. There have been instances where the miscarriage happens instantly, leaving the mother unaware of the miscarriage right to the point of its manifestation. The common miscarriage symptoms are as follows:

  • Vaginal bleeding
  • Greyish tissue or foul-smelling fluid discharges from the vagina
  • Severe pain or cramps in the abdomen, which are usually more intense than a period cramp
  • Mild to severe pain in the lower back that does not subside
  • A steep decline in the signs of pregnancy

How Can Miscarriage Be Treated?

The doctors customarily proceed with an ultrasound to detect the missing heartbeat of the foetus and a blood test to measure hCG levels to confirm if a miscarriage has occurred. A pelvic examination might also be warranted and conducive to checking whether the cervix has opened or not. There is nothing one can do to stop a miscarriage if it has already begun and hence the treatment is zeroed in on stopping the bleeding and preventing infections.

If a mother experiences a miscarriage, the foetus should be removed from her body to prevent the onset of an infection and stop the bleeding. No further treatment is necessitated if the foetal tissue is completely removed. However, surgical intervention might be needed if the foetal tissue remains inside the mother’s body after the completion of the miscarriage.

Once the diagnosis is confirmed, the foetus should be evacuated from the womb to prevent the onset of an infection and stop the bleeding. No further treatment is necessitated if the foetal tissue is completely removed. However, surgical intervention might be needed if the foetal tissue remains inside the mother’s body after the completion of the miscarriage.

In women of younger age, one miscarriage is not something to worry or panic about, and it does not always means that the same outcome is expected in further pregnancies.

If some woman experiences repeated miscarriages, it points to a deeper issue, and further investigations to look into the cause of miscarriages are necessary. This is also the case with women of advanced age, where chromosomal abnormalities are expected. A visit to your gynaecologist is warranted in the above circumstances. Known chromosomal abnormalities or rearrangements in either of the parents can be managed by genetic screening of embryos made during the IVF process.

Post-miscarriage, the mother’s mental health should also be taken care of. Since a mother is emotionally attached to her child, grief is common following a miscarriage, and a visit to your psychiatrist might be beneficent.

Prevention of Miscarriages

A woman planning to conceive should ideally be advised on lifestyle changes. She should do a checkup to ensure there is no anaemia, thyroid hypofunction or diabetes. Such disorders should be corrected before conception.
Women with previous miscarriages should be tested to look for chromosomal aberrations, clotting disorders and uterine cavity evaluation to prevent further miscarriages.

Women of older age groups should be explained about higher chances of miscarriages and can be offered IVF with genetic screening of embryos.


Miscarriage cannot be stopped in any possible way once it begins. However, it can be prevented with some lifestyle changes and medical assistance. Quitting smoking, drinking, and eating a balanced and nutritious diet with apt exercise is always a good practice. The best way to manage a miscarriage is to visit the doctor as soon as the symptoms develop or one suspects an imminent miscarriage.