The exact causes of varicocele are not well known, though we will discuss some potential causes, such as malfunction of valves inside the veins and pampiniform plexus enlargement.

Sometimes, varicocele does not need treatment, but surgery is possible if your testicle shows poor development, there is a low sperm count, and you have chronic pain.

What Are the Causes of Varicocele?

There isn’t sufficient conclusive data to pinpoint the exact varicocele causes, but some evaluations are available.

The testicles receive oxygen-rich blood from two testicular arteries. One artery is there for each side of the scrotum.

On each side of the scrotum, a small veinous network, i.e., pampiniform plexus, transports the oxygen-depleted blood from the testicle to the testicular vein. If there’s an enlargement of the pampiniform plexus, varicocele is observed.

The fault of valves in the veins that aim blood movement in the right direction is one of the varicocele causes. Oxygen-depleted blood gets back to the network of veins, and the dilation of veins occurs, which leads to varicocele.

Normally, the heart pumps oxygen-rich blood to all your body parts through the arteries, and after reaching all parts of the body, the oxygen gets consumed. Afterwards, the blood must return to the heart through the veins. But if you have any complications or age-related problems, the valves may become weak and abnormal, which leads to blood collection in the blood vessels of the scrotum and vein enlargement.

What Are the Symptoms of Varicocele?

Varicocele may sometimes show signs or symptoms. In some cases, it does not show any signs. Let’s find out what are the possible varicocele symptoms:

There may be chronic pain in the scrotum or testicles while standing. Swelling of the scrotum and shrinking of the testicles can occur. Testicle size may change, and infertility is a possibility.

A person may notice a mass in the scrotum if a varicocele is significantly larger. A small-sized varicocele can be noticed by touch. If your testicle is affected, it may feel smaller than the other testicle. Though varicocele may not always lead to infertility, the chances are always there.

What Are the Treatment Options for Varicocele?

Invasive treatment may not be needed for young men with varicocele. Your doctor may suggest an annual checkup for you. In case you are suffering from delayed testicle development, significant pain, and low sperm count, then we recommend surgical options. The surgeon will seal off the affected vein to redirect the blood flow into other healthy veins. Pain relievers can also be used to reduce pain.

You can go for laparoscopic varicocelectomy, which is a minimally invasive surgery. A laparoscope is inserted via the incisions made by the doctor, and this would help to visualise varicocele on a computer screen. The experts use small precise instruments to operate on your varicocele. It takes 30 to 40 minutes to perform the surgery.

Microsurgical varicocelectomy is also another option. In this procedure, your doctor will make very small incisions in the upper groin area. A powerful microscope is used to look at the varicocele, and a tiny instrument can operate it.

Treatment options for varicocele are simple, but ensure you consult skilled and experienced doctors. Varicocele isn’t problematic if you consult a doctor at the right time.


Varicocele is a very common problem in males in India. Approximately one crore cases are seen per year. Varicocele treatment is possible and requires lab testing or imaging for diagnosis. Early visits to the specialist may help to overcome the problem. Sometimes, varicocele heals on its own, but regular doctor visits are a must to keep track of varicocele symptoms.