Genetic disorders can be categorized depending on their mode of inheritance from one generation to the next.
· Single-gene/monogenic disorders refer to a specific disease or disorder resulting from a change/variant in a particular gene. For example, Sickle Cell Anaemia or Thalassaemia result from variants in the HBB gene
· Chromosomal disorders involve alterations (change in number or structure) affecting entire chromosome(s) or part(s) of chromosomes. For example, Down Syndrome results from an extra copy of chromosome 21.
· Complex or multifactorial disorders result from combined genetic modifications in multiple genes and may be influenced by a person’s lifestyle and environmental factors. For example, diabetes, heart problems, obesity, blood pressure, Alzheimer’s, and cancers.