Testicular biopsy is carried out using either of these two procedures:
· Open biopsy called Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE), makes use of surgical intervention and an incision is made to take a tissue sample.
· Microscopic Testicular Sperm Extraction (microTESE), like above, using a special microscopic to take targeted biopsy, therefore less invasive.
· Percutaneous Testicular sperm aspiration (TESA), where a needle is used to aspirate sperm from within the testes. No incision is made.