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A woman’s reproductive organs (uterus and cervix) play a key role in natural conception and healthy pregnancy. But the normal working of these organs can get affected due to certain structural and hereditary conditions. This leads to fertility problems.

What type of issues in the cervix brings about infertility?

The cervix consists of glands that produce fluid. This cervical fluid transports sperm during the fertilization process. Sperm gets inserted into the vagina and swims in the fluid into the uterus. The fluid contains a high amount of nutrients and has a specific consistency to promote the transport of sperm. If the cervical lining becomes too thick or sticky, it may disturb the transport of sperm.

Another issue of genetic deformity or damage to the cervix, referred to as Cervical Stenosis, may develop. This may result in the narrowing of the cervix. This might create a problem in sperm transport into the uterus.

What is a sperm allergy, and what causes it?

The cervical mucus should not contain anti-sperm antibodies. If these antibodies are present, then a condition is known as “sperm allergy” develops in females. The immune system of females produces these antibodies and identifies sperm as the attacking pathogens, like bacteria or viruses, and looks for ways to demolish them. This results in the rejection of sperm and avoids the process of fertilization.

What are the signs of “sperm allergy”?

It may result in:

  • Redness and irritation around the genital region after intercourse

  • Pain during penetrative intercourse

Is it possible for a female with “sperm allergy” to attain pregnancy?

Couples experiencing sperm allergy may be capable of conceiving via artificial insemination. In this process, sperm is washed before the injection. Thus, sperm gets free from proteins that initiate an immune reaction in females. Techniques like Assisted Reproduction have been highly successful in such females in achieving pregnancy.

What the uterine factors that result in infertility?

•    Fibroids or Polyps: Huge abnormal growths (polyps or uterine fibroids) obstruct embryonic growth and development. These non-cancerous growths are common in females. Based on their location and size, they may inhibit fallopian tubes or become an obstacle in implantation.
•    Inborn Deformities: Uterine deformities can result in problems in attaining a full-term pregnancy. Women with a T-shaped uterus suffer from an enhanced risk of miscarriage, preterm labor, and delivery.

 

What are the indications of uterine problems?

Mostly no symptoms have been observed. The symptoms are generally diagnosed when females carry trouble in conceiving. However, they can impact the menstrual cycle and bring about pelvic pain.

How are uterine problems diagnosed?

•    Genetic testing – Assists in determining whether a genetic deformity results in infertility.
•    Imaging - An ultrasound is done to gain a complete picture of the organs and detect underlying problems.
•    Hormone testing – It is done to assess the hormonal levels responsible for reproductive processes.
 

What is the line of treatment for uterine problems?

•    If the extent of the problem is known, then the innate abnormalities are possible to rectify. These rectifications can be performed using a safe and effective minimally invasive laparoscopic technique.
•    Medication and hormone therapy also restore the normal production of hormones and fluid or mucus to normalize the standard reproduction process.
 

What results in fibroids?

Problems like miscarriage, trauma during delivery, or medical abortion are certain reasons for scars. And this results in developing adhesions in the uterus. It might move on to the uterus and fallopian tubes in rare cases, creating a problem in pregnancy.

What are the signs linked to it?

Generally, fibroids are asymptomatic. These can be identified only when a female complains of any problem during conception. Also, these may affect the menstrual cycle and result in pelvic pain.

How are fibrosis diagnosed?

Mostly no symptoms are seen frequently; fibroids go unnoticed. Sometimes, fibroids are seen during a regular pelvic assessment by a gynecologist. A pelvic exam determines the size and shape of the uterus.

How can they be treated?

Fibroids are non-cancerous. They seldom hamper pregnancy. Their growth is usually slow or not at all and appears to contract after menopause when there is a fall in the hormonal levels.

How do fibroids affect fertility?

Fibroids may affect hormone production. This disturbs the normal fertility process and the ovulation cycle. Also, fibroids may obstruct the embryo growth and prevent implantation.

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