Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a technique that involves using a thin needle to remove samples of tissue or fluid from an organ of the human body. In Testicular Sperm Aspiration (TESA), a very thin, hollow needle is gently inserted through the skin. Often there is a syringe attached to the needle. Then, sperm is extracted directly from the testicles. After that, a small amount of tissue is extracted and prepared in the laboratory and examined for sperm.
Usually, the test can be done without the need to make a cut in the skin. This helps to minimize any discomfort for the person having the test as well as reduce the risk of infection or other complications. It is often used in cases of obstructive azoospermia. This procedure can be done under local anesthesia.
Sperm obtained by this method is prepared for subsequent evaluation or for fertilization of the egg using ICSI technique.
Testicular FNA has gained popularity as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool for male infertility treatment for the following reasons:
● The testicles are ideal organs for evaluation by FNA because of its easy accessibility.
● The trend toward minimally invasive procedures views FNA favorably compared to surgical testicular biopsy.
Testicular FNA is a minimally invasive (out-patient), safe, effective method for obtaining sperms. It has proved to be the simplest, the most rapid, inexpensive, and overall the least invasive technique for obtaining testicular samples.