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Thyroid Problems and Infertility

Thyroid Disorders

Thyroid disorders are quite common worldwide, with an estimated 200 million people have some form of thyroid disease. Women are more prone to thyroid problems than men. The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland present in the neck above the collarbone. It is one type of endocrine gland that releases hormones and plays a crucial role in the metabolism, growth, and development of the human body. It releases three hormones, including Triiodothyronine (T3), Tetraiodothyronine (T4), and Calcitonin.

Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are two common thyroid disorders. Besides, other thyroid problems include goitre, thyroid cancer, thyroiditis, thyroid nodules, etc.

What is hypothyroidism, and what are the symptoms of it?

Hypothyroidism refers to a condition where the thyroid gland unable to produce enough hormones. Signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism include tiredness, sensitivity to cold, constipation, dryness, muscle weakness, increased cholesterol level, pain, etc.

What is hyperthyroidism, and what are the symptoms of it?

Hyperthyroidism refers to the condition where the thyroid gland produces excessive thyroid hormone. Common symptoms of hyperthyroidism are nervousness, muscle weakness, difficulty in sleeping, rapid and irregular heartbeat, mood swings, etc.

How does thyroid function affect fertility?

In hypothyroidism, low levels of thyroid hormone prevent the release of the egg from the ovary. It also interferes with the development of the embryo. If hypothyroidism is left untreated during pregnancy, it might result in premature birth, low birth weight, etc. Pregnant women or women planning to conceive should check their thyroid hormones and receive suitable treatment. Hyperthyroidism may have an adverse effect on male and female infertility. However, the condition is reversible once the normal thyroid gland function is restored.

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